Proctitis is an inflammatory process in the area of the rectal mucosa. It is a polyetiological disease. It is accompanied by frequent urges to stool, discomfort during defecation, burning, itching and a feeling of a foreign body in the anus. In acute forms, hyperthermia and symptoms of intoxication are observed, while in chronic pathology the general condition is not impaired. Proctitis is diagnosed on the basis of complaints, examination, rectal and endoscopic examination. Treatment is elimination of provoking factors, diet, antimicrobials, analgesics and disinfectants. Doctors sometimes prescribe:

General information
Proctitis – inflammation of the rectal mucosa, caused by eating disorders, parasites, infectious lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, the perineum and the small pelvis, chronic diseases of the digestive system, surgery, foreign bodies in the anus, radiation exposure and other factors. Proctitis can be acute, subacute or chronic, but more often has a chronic course. Often it is combined with inflammation of the sigmoid colon (proctosigmoiditis) or the pararectal tissue (paraproctitis). There is no precise information about the prevalence of proctitis. The disease equally often affects patients of both sexes. Treatment is carried out by specialists in the field of proctology.

Causes of proctitis
It is possible to distinguish two groups of factors that cause the development of the disease – general and local. Local damaging factors include mechanical trauma, the introduction of chemicals, hot or cold solutions into the rectum, the passage of infection from nearby organs, as well as neoplasms of the rectum. Proctitis can be caused by mechanical trauma from unskilled massage or self-massage of the rectum and prostate, homosexual intercourse and the introduction of all kinds of objects into the rectum for the purpose of excitement and satisfaction.

Proctitis due to exposure to irritating chemicals, hot and cold solutions usually occurs when attempting to treat with “folk remedies”, improper or excessive use of enemas, rectal suppositories, etc. Alcohol, turpentine, essential oils (clove oil, eucalyptus oil, peppermint oil), iodine solution, concentrated calcium chloride solution, mustard and chilli pepper tinctures can be used as “folk cures” that provoke proctitis. All of these substances have an irritating effect, and patients often use them to treat hemorrhoids, anal fissures and other diseases, which aggravates the existing pathology and causes inflammation of the mucosa.

Proctitis can also occur with the contact spread of infection from an inflamed vagina, urethra, bladder or pararectal tissue. In addition to nonspecific infectious agents, gonococci, chlamydia, trichomonas, etc. may be the causative agent. In patients suffering from cancer, the cause of proctitis may be decaying malignant tumors of the rectum and other perineal organs.

In the list of common causes of proctitis, specialists include nutritional disorders, GI infections, parasitic diseases, autoimmune diseases, disorders of motility, innervation or blood supply to the lower intestines, and radiation exposure. The disease is more often diagnosed in people who abuse alcohol, spicy and spicy foods. Proctitis may be found in infectious diseases such as salmonellosis, dysentery and escherichiosis, as well as in enterovirus infection. In the prolonged course of these diseases, proctitis is provoked not only by direct contact of pathogens with the rectal mucosa, but also by prolonged diarrhea, release of toxins and other common causes.

Scientists include Crohn’s disease, nonspecific ulcerative colitis, amyloidosis, and Whipple’s disease in the list of autoimmune diseases that affect the colon and can cause proctitis. The list of parasitic diseases includes giardiasis, amebiasis, enterobiasis and ascariasis. In people who have recently visited the tropics, American trypanosomiasis may be a provoking parasitic disease, but in Russia such cases are rare.

Proctitis is often diagnosed in patients with colonic dyskinesia and irritable bowel syndrome, as well as in patients who have undergone surgery on the pelvic organs or suffer from chronic blood supply disorders in this area. The likelihood of developing proctitis is increased by diseases of the pancreas, liver and gallbladder. Another cause of proctitis is radiation during the treatment of malignant neoplasia of the pelvic organs, most often uterine and cervical cancer. The likelihood of developing the disease directly depends on the dose of radiation.